Mango Tree Care

The mango fruit belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is native to South Asia.
The Indian mango fruit tree (Mangifera indica) is commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions.

Mango fruit is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines. It is the national tree of Bangladesh. In Australia, the first mango box of the season is sold at an auction for charity.

The mango tree grows in tropical climates, so the tree will die in temperatures below 1°C (about 30°F). In the U.S. the mangoes can only grow in the southern south of Florida and California.

There are many varieties of mango. The ripe mango fruit varies in shape, size, texture and color. The flesh of ripe mangoes varies from a soft, pulpy texture to firm or fibrous texture. The raw mango is used to make chutneys,pickles or cooked.

A mango tree can be grown from a seed in ground or in a large pot, but this will take a long time to bear the fruit. A grafted mango tree may take about 4 years to produce fruit. A mango tree grown from seed may take more than 5 years to produce fruit.

Detailed tips on how to grow a mango tree from seeds and grafted saplings are given including pests, diseases and problems.

How to grow a mango from seed |Premature falling of mangoes| How to ripen mangoes faster | Mango nutrition facts

Guide To Growing Mangoes : Mango Tree Care

The mango tree is an evergreen tree with large dense leathery foliage. The reddish new shoots looks very pleasing and the mature green leaves also look attractive. A mango tree grows about half a meter a year, reaching up to 35 m high and 15 m round canopy. The growth is slow if the mango is grown in a pot.
Small Mango Tree
Baby Mango Tree

Position : Where To Plant

Mango tree needs full day sun in a sheltered position to grow.

Matured mango trees can tolerate hard frosts, but young saplings must protected from frost.

I did not have enough sunny spot in my kitchen garden so I selected a sunny spot in the middle of my front lawn.


Dig a big hole in the ground and break big chunks of soil and remove any pebbles. Add some river sand and plenty of compost (how to make compost) and aged cow manure.


Mangoes can be grown from seeds (growing a mango tree from seed) or grafting but not directly from cuttings. The cuttings need to be grafted on a root stock.


  1. Garden shops generally sell grafted mango saplings.You can buy a mango baby plant from your nursery to save 1-2 years.
  2. I bought a small one year old mango plant (Kensington Pride—also known as Bowen, it is very tasty!) from the local garden shop in early summer.
  3. Carefully separate the tree from the pot without disturbing the roots and plant it in the hole.
  4. Mulch: After planting, put a thick layer of wood ash and compost around the tree as mulch. The wood ash contains calcium, potassium and magnesium, which improve water retention, nutrients, taste, colour, yield and disease resistance.
  5. The young plant started to produce new pink foliage which gradually transformed to green colour.
  6. When the tree is one meter high, cut it back by a third to encourage branches. When these branches again grow to a meter length, cut them back.
  7. Mango flowers: In the first early spring, tiny fragrant flowers appeared but did not form any fruits.
Mango Flowers
Mango Flowers
Diseased Mango Leaves
Diseased Mango Leaves
In the second year a few mango fruits formed but all fell off the tree, only one fruit reached 1 cm. Note that the flowers self pollinate very well.

It had lot of flowers on the old growth in the middle of spring.   The flowers are pollinated by insects but only a small percentage of the flowers will mature to form a fruit. Initially there were a large number of tiny mangoes on the flower panicles, but soon the tree shed a lot of them and now there are only 20 left, that is what the tree can handle. (Look for Causes of premature falling of mangoes.)

The baby mangoes will ultimately reach to full size. They will grow bigger depending on the weather, the hotter the weather the faster they ripen. It takes about four months for the mangoes to ripen on the tree.

You need to protect the fruits from fruit fly, birds and bats. I cover each fruit in paper bags.

Pick the ripe mango fruits (how to ripen mangoes) in summer to enjoy their health benefits.

Mango Fertilizer Requirement

  1. The requirement of fertilizer for mango trees is the same as for citrus trees.
  2. The mango trees are extremely sensitive to fertilizer burn, so you may avoid chemical fertilizers.
  3. Organic fertilizers like composted manures, blood bone meal and fish emulsion work best. When the tree is young, you may feed lightly with organic fertilizer like dynamic lifter or with a balanced fertilizer 3-4 times per year. There after, fertilize with citrus fertilizer in the spring when the tree begins to bloom and after the fruit has finished.
  4. Roughly 100 g fertilizer per 1 inch diameter of the trunk of the tree is sufficient. rack the fertilize in the soil around the trunk, leaving 1 foot from the trunk.
  5. Once a year, you may feed iron in chelated form.
  6. I also use seaweed and fish emulsion spray as foliage spray. Seaweed extract which contains hormones auxin, stimulates root growth, flowering and fruiting. It thickens the walls of plant cells thus making pest and disease harder to attack. It also stimulates the micro organisms in the soil thus helping organic matter break down.

Mango Care Tips

Caring a mango tree is not difficult if you look for the basic need of the tree.
  1. Keep thick organic matter as compost and mulch.
  2. Water regular and a little fertilization until they are established. Over watering can kill the plant, if your soil is heavy or not having good drainage.
  3. If you grow mango tree in a pot, water your plant regularly when the plant is young. When the mango tree matures a bit, start to water it when top 2 inch soil becomes dry.
  4. When your mango tree is flowering and producing fruits, increase the frequency of watering.
  5. Lightly fertilize in spring and summer with citrus fertilizer. Too much nitrogen fertilizer will produce leafy growth and little fruit. The plant will be weak, can easily be attacked by bugs and diseases.
  6. Spray foliage with seaweed solution every fortnight.
  7. Spray copper fungicide periodically after the first appearance of the flowers until all fruits had set.
  8. Care in Winters
    1. If you are growing mango tree in a container, then move it indoors when it is freezing outside. Place it in a room which receives some sunlight in day.
    2. If growing outdoors, put Christmas lights on the tree branches to provide some heat in the night. You may cover your tree to protect it from cold, if possible.

Pests, Diseases and Problems of a Mango Tree

3 Year Old Mango Plant
3 Year Old Mango Plant
Ripe mangoes
Mangoes first crop
  1. The main bugs and pests of mangoes are fruit piercing moths, fruit-spotting bug, fruit fly, helopeltis, caterpillar, leaf hopper, stem miner, Red-banded thrips and tipborer.
  2. The mango main diseases are anthracnose, apical bud necrosis, bacterial black spot, bacterial flower disease, powdery mildew, phytophthora fruit rot and stem end rot.
  3. The most serious of these is a fungus known as anthracnose, that can cause the flowers to go black and fall off. It also causes black spots on stem and small fruit, leaves may go brown. It is worse in high humidity, frequent rains and the temperature range of 24-32 deg C during flowering and fruit set. It develops black patches on the fruit. Copper fungicide spray reduce the risk of various bacterial and fungal diseases.
  4. Powdery mildew is another serious disease of affecting almost all the mango varieties. This is characterized by the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalk of panicles, flowers and young fruits. The affected flowers and fruits drop per-maturely.

Black Spots on Leaves : Anthracnose Infection

This is the third year of the tree and it appears very healthy but on careful observation, I noticed some distorted leaves, curly leaves and black spots and tiny holes on a few of them and some leaves turning brown.

It was a thing of concerned. I wondered what was the cause of black spots on the leaves? Black spots appeared on both young and old leaves. I also noticed blackspots on leaves, blooms and fruits on my neighbour's mango tree. The young fruit was deformed and split.

On searching for the cause of the black spots, I discovered that the problem was due to Anthracnose infection. Due to this infection on the young leaves, the black spots appear along the boundary causing leaf curl and leaf drop.

I sprayed copper fungicide all over the plant, but as Sydney can have rains all year round, so it rained that evening washing away the fungicide. Next day I had to spray it again. Luckily, the disease was cured. Copper fungicide can also help in copper deficiency.

Mango Fruits On 3+ Year Old Tree
Mango Fruits On 3+ Year Old Tree

When A Mango Tree Will Fruit?

Mango Tree Not fruiting?
  1. Mature mango trees fruit only alternating years. There are some ways to induce flowering in "off" years.
  2. A stressed mango tree can produce blossoms. The tree can be stressed by watering it only when absolutely necessary, cutting back or stopping fertilization, salting the ground, smoking the tree, slashing tree trunk and pruning off one-half the flower clusters in a year when the tree blooms.
  3. It may be noted that the stressing method may or may not work on your tree.

Large Size Mangoes

  1. A tree in the farm of Iqbal Khokhar in Shinor village in Vadodara districts (India) is growing mangoes weighing over two kilograms a piece.
  2. Hemant Patel, N expert from Anand Agriculture University, India said, "This is four to five times the size of even the Rajapuri mango. This phenomenon needs to be researched.
  3. The Fajli Mango grown in Malda, West Bengal, India is normally of 1.5 kg.
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  1. I have grown a mango tree from the seed. It is now three year bold. When it will be producing fruits?

    1. It depends on the type of seed and it may take several years to fruit.


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