My Kitchen Garden

Mango Seeds That Grow Fruits in 2 to 4 Years

When I posted a video showing that my mango tree grown from seed had produced fruits in just 2 years, there was lot of reactions from the viewers. They were of the view that it was not possible to get fruits from a mango tree so quickly, and my tree must have been a grafted tree.

But it is really true that the mango tree can produce fruits in 2 to 4 years, if they have been grown from a poly-embryonic seed. The mango tree grown from poly-embryonic seed do not need to be grafted.

Find a list of polyembryonic mangoes which can grow fruits in 2 to 4 years time.  Also learn about mango seed viability and how to store them.

Mango tree care | Premature falling of mangoes| How to ripen mangoes faster | Mango nutrition facts

Many people think that all seeds contain just one plant embryo. But some mango and citrus seeds are poly-embryonic [1-3].
Picture of Monoembryonic and Polyembryonic mango Seed
Mono- and Poly-embryonic Mango Seeds

A polyembryonic seed contains multiple embryos, so produces more than one shoot, actually several shoots depending on the number of embryos. Only one of the shoots originates from fertilization which is not a true clone of the parent seed. All the other seedlings are clones of the mother tree. The fertilized seedling is weak and should be discarded.
Multiple seedling germinated in a polyembryonic mango seed
Multiple seedling germinated in a polyembryonic mango seed

Picture of a 2 year old mango tree with flowers and fruits
2 Year old mango tree with flowers and fruits

Picture of Flowers in 2 year old Kensington Pride mango tree
Flowers in 2 year old KP mango tree
Although a tree grown from the polyembryonic seed may produce mango fruits in 2 to 4 years time, the tree will produce a good crop when it is around 7 years old. I pinched off all the tiny mango fruits from my 2 year old mango tree so that it could grow. The tree has now grown several branches making it denser.

List of Polyembryonic Mangoes

One person asked, me how to make a polyembryonic seed or how to convert a monoembryonic seed into a polyembryonic seed! The answer is it is the variety of the mango that decides whether the seed is mono-or poly-embryonic. You can't convert one variety into another.

In general, mangoes from the following tropical locations are Polyembryonic:
Burma, Cambodia, India (Goa, Karnataka and Coastal parts of Kerala), Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

In general, mangoes from the following tropical locations are Polyembryonic:
Burma, Cambodia, India (Goa, Karnataka and Coastal parts of Kerala), Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

There are many mango varieties which are polyembryonic type. Some of these varieties in Asia and Australia are Kensington Pride or Bowen, R2E2, Bullocks Heart, Bundaberg Late, Kasturi, Champagne, Honey, Altaufo, Manila, Chandrakaran, Cathamia, Baramasia, MA 173, etc. which you can buy from your grocery store. The mangoes grown from the seeds of theses mangoes will be true to type.

The suitable varieties of polyembryonic type in USA are Florigon, Laris, Mekong, Ono, Orange, Samini, Simmonds, Torbet. Wester, etc. The Newsletter of Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Queensland gives a detailed list of polyembryonic type of mangoes in various countries. In India almost all the varieties are monoembryonic. However, some of the Polyembryonic varieties are Gubdu Salem, MA 173, Baramasia, Olor, Chandrakaran, Colombo Black, etc.

Following is a list of polyembryonic mangoes in various countries [4].

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Australia

Bali Apple, Banana-1, Black Java, Bowen (Kensington Pride), Bullocks Heart, Bundaberg, Gullivers Triumph, Ingham Late, Mag-B, Nixon's Special, Peach CG, Roberts-3, Spychala, Tekin, Thomas, TPP 1, Trusso.

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in India

The north indian mango varieties are all monoembryonic type. The mangoes only form Goa, karnatka and kerla are polyembryonic variety.

Bappakai, Baramasia, Bellary, Chandrakaran, Colombo Black, Goa, Goa Kasargod, Gundu, Kurukkan, MA 173, Moovandan, Mundappa, Mylepania, Mylepaliumt, Olour, Salem, Sings Late, Sri Lanka


Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Indonesia

A, Ampalam

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Philippines

Binoboy,Cambodiana, Carabao, Corazont, Paho, Pahutan, Pico, Senora and Strawberry.

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Sri Lanka

Ambalayi, Rupee

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Thailand

Fa Lan, Fa Lan 97, Gow, Ma Muang Paa, Mempelam Siam, Mun, Nam Doc Mai, Nam Tan Teen, Nang Klarngwun, Nuwun Chan, Ok Rong

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Malaysia

Arumanis, Dunlop, Maha 165, Simpang Empat, Sungi Siput, Tok Boon

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in USA

Atalafo (popular names - Champagne or Honey), Champagne or Honey, Florigon, Ono, Orange, Samini, Simmonds, Torbet, Turpentine, Wester

Polyembryonic Mango Varieties in Vietnam

Cambodiana, Micongensis, Xoài   Buoi, Xoài  Cat Hoa Loc, Xoài  Thanh Ca, Xoài  Túóng, Xoài Cat Chu, Xoài Cat Thom

The mango trees grown from  the polyembryonic seeds produce their first fruit at 2 – 4 years age, however, the they will produce a reasonably good crop when they are around 7 years old.

Advantages of Polyembryonic Mango Trees


  1. Both the polyembryonic seed grown mango trees (seedling trees) and grafted trees produce fruits quite early.
  2. The mango seedling trees grown from the polyembryonic seeds are relatively resistant to anthracnose problem.
  3. Grafted trees grow more slowly than seedling trees.
  4. The skin tones of Polyembryonic mangoes are restricted to green, light green and yellow, whereas we see many skin colors of other mangoes.

Mango Seed Viability & Storing The Seeds

Mangos are not propagated from cuttings or by air layering because such trees have weak roots. So if you are growing a mango tree at your home garden then either you must buy a grafted mango tree or grow it from a polyembryonic seed.

The mango seeds lose viability very rapidly. So it must be sown as soon as posible. The mango seed will not germinate if it is more than 3-4 weeks old. The viability of seeds stored even at low temperatures declines.
  1. If you cannot sow the mango seeds immediately, you can store them for a few weeks.
  2. Place the seeds in a container and cover them with sand and sow them as soon as possible.
  3. Seeds stored in sphagnum moss and sealed in a polyethylene bag may germinate over 4 weeks.
  4. Storing the mango seeds in 50-percent relative humidity can keep the 80 percent viability even after 60 days.
  5. The seeds treated with thiabendazole and packed in a plastic bag at 10-15 deg C can keep the seeds viable for 12 weeks [5].

YouTube video of how to grow a mango tree from seed



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References

1.Characteristics of some polyembryonic mango types grown under Kerla conditions,
T. Radha and C. Manjula
2. Mango,
3. List of mango cultivars
4. Mangoes - Polyembryonic
5. Effect of storage conditions on seed viability of mango (Mangifera indica L.), Oraphan Sungkajanttranon