How To Grow Capsicum From Seeds

The article gives a detailed procedure for how to grow capsicum from seeds in pots at home. Growing capsicum (also known as bell peppers or sweet peppers) from seeds is a rewarding and cost-effective way to cultivate these vibrant and nutritious vegetables in your garden. With a little knowledge and preparation, you can enjoy a bountiful harvest of fresh, crunchy capsicums right at home.

This comprehensive guide will walk you through the step-by-step process of growing capsicum from seeds at home. how to grow chillies in containers 

Growing Capsicums From Seeds
Green Red, Yellow Capsicums

Selecting the Right Seeds

Capsicum Varieties: Common capsicum varieties include green, red, yellow, orange, and even purple capsicums. Choose a capsicum variety that suits your taste preferences and growing conditions. Consider factors such as size, flavour, and disease resistance when selecting your seeds.

Seed Quality: Choose high-quality seeds from garden seed supplier or save seeds from mature capsicums. Look for fresh seeds without signs of damage or disease.

When to Plant Capsicum Seeds?

In tropical and subtropical regions, capsicum seeds can be planted almost all year round, but best sown in autumn to summer. 

In other regions, you just can't plant capsicum seeds straight away in soil until the soil temperature is from 22 to 30°C (71 to 86°F. The most common reason for capsicum seeds not germinating is the wrong temperature. The capsicum seeds will not germinate below 22˚C, keep them moist at 22 to 30°C to quickly germinate.

You can start capsicum seeds germination indoors 8-10 weeks before the last frost date in your area and plant the seedlings outside only all threat of cold and frost has gone.

I, in Sydney, Australia sow the capsicum seeds in September, October, and November to harvest capsicums in summer months.

Sowing or Planting the Capsicum Seeds

You may soak the seeds in warm water for a few hours before planting to promote germination, although it is not essential.

Capsicum Seed Germination

You can germinate the capsicum seeds in a paper towel. For this, take a kitchen paper towel and spread the seeds on it, then fold the paper and spray water to fully damp the paper. Enclose it in a zip lock bag and place at a warm place. The seeds will germinate in 1 to 2 weeks. Then plant the germinated seeds in soil.

Sowing Capsicum Seeds

  1. Use seed trays or small pots with drainage holes to start the seeds. Fill them with a high-quality seed starting mix or a mixture of peat moss, vermiculite, and perlite.
  2. Sow the seeds ¼ inch (0.6 cm) deep, spacing them about 2 inches (5 cm) apart and gently water.
  3. Cover the container with a plastic wrap to create a mini-greenhouse. Place the containers in a warm location. You can place the container indoors at a warm place.
  4. Capsicum seeds usually germinate within 7-14 days.

Reasons Capsicum Seeds not Germinating: The main reason for capsicum pepper seeds not germinating is low temperature and .or inconsistent humidity.

Soil Preparation

Prepare the planting area by mixing compost or composted cow manure in soil. Capsicums prefer slightly acidic soil with a pH level between 6.0 and 6.8. if your soil is clay or hard, mix some river sand to make it free-draining.

Transplanting Seedlings

Select a sunny location in your garden with well-draining soil. Space the plants 18-24 inches (45-60 cm) apart to allow for growth or you can plant the seedlings in large pots.

Capsicum peppers in Pots: If growing capsicums in pots, select a pot at least 40 cm diameter and height, having drainage holes. Fill this pot with a nutrition rich free-draining potting soil.

Capsicum pepper seedlings in a small Pot
Capsicum Pepper Seedlings in a small Pot

Planting Capsicum Seedling

Dig a hole slightly larger than the root ball of the seedling. Place the seedling in the hole and backfill the hole and gently firm the soil around the plant. Water well.

Caring for Capsicum Plants Grown from Seeds

Capsicum Peppers growing in a pot
Orange Capsicum Peppers
growing in a pot
The picture shows an orange capsicum plant in a pot.


The capsicum pepper plants thrives in sun, at least 6-8 hours of sunlight per day to grow faster.

Capsicum plants do not die in winter, however, the plants go dormant during winter and growth stops completely. As the plants are dormant, they need very less water. Water only when the top one inch of soil becomes dry. 

Mulching: Apply a layer of mulch like sugarcane mulch around the plants to retain moisture and prevent weeds.

Watering: The capsicum plants need consistent moisture to grow well. Water deeply when the top inch (2.5 cm) of soil feels dry, but avoid overwatering, which can lead to root rot. The signs of overwatering are wilted leaves, yellow leaves or drooping leaves. Use room temperature water to prevent shocking the plants.

Fertilizing: Feed the plants with a balanced fertilizer every 4-6 weeks or use a slow-release organic fertilizer at the time of planting. I also feed a liquid fertilizer like Powerfeed during the growing period every 2 weeks.

Support: As the plants grow, they may require support. Stake tall varieties or use tomato cages to prevent branches from breaking under the weight of the fruit.

Pruning: Pinch off the first flowers that appear on young plants to ensure that they put more energy into growing and promote vigorous growth. Prune any damaged or diseased leaves and branches as needed.

Pest and Disease Control: Monitor for common pests like aphids, caterpillars, or snails. Use organic insecticides.

Capsicum from Seed to Fruit: The plant will produce capsicums in 12 to 15 weeks after sowing the seeds.

Lifespan of Capsicum Plant: The capsicum plants can leave up to 3 years if you correctly care for them. Although capsicum plants come back every year for up to 3 years with right conditions, they are grown as annuals by most gardeners.

Reasons for Capsicum Peppers Seedlings or Plants Not Growing

The main cause for capsicum plants not growing is less sun light and/or low temperature. If growing in a container, the small size of the pot can be the reason, because some varieties can grow very large, so they need more soil for their roots to grow.